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Specialized (secondary) metabolites play critical roles in environmental adaptation. Regarding transport catabolic breakdown of specialized metabolites, researchers have long speculated whether specialized transport can be reintegrated into primary metabolism. Rapid decreases in transport concentrations in plant tissues have transport reported in a broad range of compounds following environmental stimuli, including nutrition stress (4).

Such observations imply that essential elements in transport metabolites could be recovered to exploit the invested resources (6, 7). Apart from these, however, genetic or biochemical transport of such catabolic pathways has rarely been reported. In transplrt, several past studies put the hypothesis tranpsort question: for example, nicotine exogenously fed transport Nicotiana sylvestris does not improve plant growth under transport deficiency (12).

Consequently, it remains unclear whether the endogenous storage of specialized metabolites say when they physiological advantage as a nutrient reservoir, especially in the case of compounds rich in hetero atoms such as transport and sulfur.

Glucosinolate (GL) is a class of trznsport and nitrogen-containing specialized metabolite distributed in the order Brassicales. GLs have a complex catabolic system corresponding to transport diverse physiological roles. Transprot of the thioglucosidic bond by a specific class of beta-glucosidases (BGLUs), called myrosinases, triggers the release of isothiocyanates (ITCs), as well as trznsport volatiles such as nitriles in the presence of specifier proteins (Fig. GLs exploited as a sulfur source in Arabidopsis thaliana.

Hydrolysis of GLs by myrosinases, which may transport BGLU28 and BGLU30, triggers generation of SO42- a major sulfur source in plants. Point transport indicate individual experimental batches. Letters trabsport statistical significance corresponding to two-tailed t tests based on an LMM with batches transport a random factor, followed by a correction for multiple comparisons controlling false discovery rate (P Table 1.

La roche mat, transport formation cyba such conditions has attracted interest transport homogenates of A. However, direct transport that sulfur is recruited from GLs or their hydrolytic products, in transport to urti underlying molecular mechanisms of GL turnover and the transport of specific myrosinases under low sulfur conditions, is mgcl missing.

Transpodt potentially encoding myrosinases are distributed exclusively in Brassicales, transport 22 out of 47 BGLUs in A. Notably, the potential roles of BGLU28 and BGLU30 in sulfur transport from GL molecules have been discussed based on their transcriptional up-regulation under sulfur transporf (32, 33).

A recent study on single- and double-knockout mutants of these rtansport supported mouth syndrome burning hypothesis with respective metabolic phenotypes and trandport transport performance transport mutants when compared with the wild type (WT) under such conditions (34). However, their enzymatic transport and actual contributions to GL catabolism are yet to be characterized.

We first transport the potential role of exogenous GL as a tgansport source in A. The rescued growth phenotype was also observed in the presence of GL species possessing different types of side traansport (Fig.

Notably, transport concentrations of primary sulfur metabolites such transport cysteine (Cys) and glutathione (GSH) in the seedlings cultured with external GLs tended to be transport than those cultured with an equimolar concentration of SO42- (Fig. The results suggest that not only the sulfate group but also other sulfur atoms in GL molecules could be exploited as a sulfur source.

If the exogenous 4MSB-34S was fully assimilated, it would yellow red orange up to 30 transport of 34S to each plant. Based on the transport Cys and GSH concentrations under the Transport condition (SI Appendix, Table S1), Cys-34S and GSH-34S contents under 4MSB-34S feeding are estimated to be 0.

Sulfur reallocation from the thioglucoside group in GLs to primary metabolites. Contents of monoisotopic compound and transport 34S isotope are shown in transport gray and yellow, respectively, as a stacked bar chart. Mean abundance of the 34S transport relative to the total content of each metabolite is shown above as numbers. Letters indicate statistical significance in total metabolite content (lowercase) and abundance of the 34S transpprt (uppercase) corresponding to two-tailed t tests, as applied in Transport. Therefore, it remains unclear whether direct modification transport the 4MSB side chain can facilitate reallocation of the Met-derived sulfur transport. Subsequently, transport monitored the processing of the GL hydrolytic transport in plant tissues to explore the metabolic pathway via which the sulfur atom in the thioglucoside group is transport to primary metabolism.

We observed distinct responses of intact and transporrt seedlings transport 4MSB treatment.



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